How to Winterize Your Bonsai 2016

Winter’s coming! Time to get your bonsai up! Welcome back to Appalachian Bonsai. I’m going to discuss some winterizing techniques for your bonsai trees. The majority of bonsai trees are made from temperate zone specimens. Such as this. This is a shimpaku juniper. Tropical trees can survive indoors, but, all trees thrive outside. That’s what they evolved to do. Trees such as this, and my maples, and other trees you’ve seen this year need to be outside during the winter to survive.

That is what they have evolved to do. My preferred method is to put the trees on the ground and cover them with mulch. But, there are other methods you can use if you have a smaller space such as an apartment with a balcony, or a small townhouse. Living in the city, or even the suburbs, you can create a means to protect your trees during the wintertime. Let’s get started. Many of the items I’m about to discuss can easily be found in your home or at a local hardware store, such as styrofoam insulation material, or even a styrofoam cooler. To create a box, use large pieces of rigid foam like this. Cut to shape, and tape them together. You can even line a Rubbermaid tub with this. Place in your bonsai tree. Then fill it with insulation. A styrofoam cooler is a ready-made solution. Just remove the top – You can discard that. Add holes to the bottom, to ensure good drainage.

Add your beautiful bonsai tree to the cooler Add as many as you feel comfortable. Lastly, add insulation, such as pine needles or mulch. Good to go! If you think styrofoam will be unsightly for your yard, try a couple of hay bales. Put your pots on the ground, or on a piece of plywood, then surround them with hay bales. Pack it full of straw or mulch, and you should be good to go. Take a couple of gourds or pumpkins, if you want, and stick them right on top! This is my wintering bed. You can see it isn’t very pretty, but, it doesn’t have to be. It’s just storing my trees for the wintertime.

What’ve I’ve done is taken plywood, and put it on the ground, then put my pots right on top, and cover them with mulch. The reason for this, is to keep bits of mud and debris out from under the pot. That will clog drainage. This acts as a nice barrier. Another feature is my windscreen. and I have this around the outside area. And what this does, is minimize wind from blowing through, and causing limb dieback. The wind will dehydrate your trees, so protect them as best you can. If you have good draining soil, you shouldn’t have to worry about freeze issues too much, What you do need to worry about is your trees drying out. Just check the moisture levels. You can see this top layer looks dry, but, when you brush it aside, you can see the darker color of damp material underneath. What about placement of your trees? Where in your yard do you put them? Most importantly, if you’ve got space for them, put them there.

There are a few things you can pay attention to that might assist you in your process. I keep looking up because of my roof. The roof here, if snow builds up on top of this, there’s a chance of it sliding down, and damaging my trees. So, I do not put trees underneath the eaves. I do, however, keep them back here.

This is the north side of my house. It’s shaded, and it’s protected from snowfall from this roof. Trees don’t need much light during the winter. Many trees, especially in the northern climates get buried with snow. They don’t see light for many months. It’s not necessary. The snow itself also acts as an insulator. So, if you have them buried in snow during the winter, it can be a very good thing to have. One of the last options I’ll discuss about winterizing your trees will be keeping them in a cold place, such as a basement like this, or a shed, or some room you can keep in the high-30’s to low-40’s (Fahrenheit) It can be a very difficult thing to do. Inside can often be very dry during the wintertime. That can lead to your trees drying out if you don’t pay attention to how much moisture is in the pot.

Another problem, is there is little to no ventilation. The air outside is always moving, even when it’s supposedly still outside, but inside, bad ventilation can lead to mold and mildew problems. You don’t want to have that with your trees. I’ve lost more trees keeping them indoors during the winter, than I have keeping them outside during the winter. It can be a tricky thing, but if you have nothing else, use it as an option. These are not the only means by which you can protect your trees during the winter. These are ones that I can recommend, because I’ve used them. There are all manners & variations to things you can do in order to take care of them. If you have another idea, feel free to put it in the comment section. Give me a good thumbs up! Subscribe, if you haven’t already. I hope this has been helpful. Thanks for watching! Well, I put those in the ground just in time! Whooo!!

Bonsai Soil Tests: Part 1: Water Retention

Welcome to Appalachian Bonsai. This video is one of a series to discuss soil components and some of their properties as they pertain to bonsai. These components are what we’re available to me at this particular time. What’s available to you may vary by region or by country. When it comes to bonsai soil no two person’s soil mixtures are alike. Each soil mixture depends upon the species, the climate, and the person who’s using them. I hope that just seeing these components in testing will allow you to make choices for your own.

Thanks for watching. Today, we’re going to look at water retention and a little bit on drainage. All plants need water so let’s see how much water these components hold. Both organic and inorganic materials were considered. Just because something holds moisture doesn’t make it good. Conversely, just because it might not absorb moisture doesn’t make it bad. I began by measuring equal volumes of each component and measured their dry weight for reference. Next, I added distilled water to each type and let it soak for one hour. This should allow plenty of time for each type of soil to fully saturate.

After an hour, the components are removed from the water and allowed to drain. Each is weighed out over time to calculate retention. Let’s see the differences. We’ll begin with organic materials. Coconut coir is commonly used in flower baskets and hydroponics. It is sold in brick form and soaks up water like a sponge. It fills the entire cup. That’s a lot of water! But, all available space is filled, which isn’t necessarily good for bonsai. We’ll will look more on that type of drainage in another video. After draining for an hour and 45 minutes, we weighed each sample. We weighed the samples again 3.5 hours later.

By comparing the different weights, we are able to determine the amount of water retained, and a basic percentage of loss. At 129 grams of water retained, plus minimal loss, Coconut Coir ranks number one in organic material water retention. This is mushroom compost I bought in bags at my local nursery. It is damp at purchase time, so I oven-dried it before I used it. Small twigs and sand may be present, and the content will vary depending on where you purchase.

It drains well and has a slight alkalinity. I’ll do a video on pH at a later date. At 26 grams of water retained and 31.5% lost, Compost comes in at number three with water retention for organic material. Sphagnum moss is found in cooler damper regions of the world and is known to hold moisture very well. However, in the United States commercially available peat moss comes in a fine kiln dry powder.

Unlike fresh sphagnum. In this processed form it does not whet easily, much like baking flour. More information will be available in a future video. You can see it has absorbed very little water, and is actually floating on top. If powdered peat moss in a soil mix is allowed to dry out potential dead zones may occur. If it is saturated, powdered peat moss will hold plenty of moisture, but for this test, it did not perform well. After draining for five and a quarter hour, peat moss only held six grams of water with 40% loss. It ranks number four on the organic list. Pine bark and fir bark are fan favorites in the bonsai world. I have pine bark available in my region.

Here, pine bark chips can be sold as soil conditioner. I sift it to a proper size and put the rest in the garden. Sifted bark drains well and holds good moisture. Beneficial microorganisms like bacteria can thrive in these porous structures. As a quick note, pine bark is on the acidic side. At retaining 22 grams of water at a 14.8% loss, pine bark comes in at number two in organic water retention. Let’s look at the Inorganic materials and aggregates. Akadama is the classic gold standard of Japanese bonsai mixtures. Here in most of the U.S., it is expensive and not readily available. It is often purchased online or at dedicated bonsai nurseries. Its large particle size drains well and its porosity absorbs and retains moisture. Because of the expense and its scarcity outside of Japan, people around the world look for alternatives to akadama. With water retention of 22 grams at a 26.6% loss, Akadama ranks number two overall in inorganic material.

Diatomaceous Earth, or diatomite, is a lightweight fossilized clay that is used as an absorbent in kitty litter and oil dry. This product needs to be sifted well before use. It also compacts and breaks down over time. We will look at that in another video. Like Akadama, it absorbs and retains moisture very well, and in fact, retains more water than akadama. At 37 grams of water retained with 30% loss, Diatomaceous Earth comes in at number one overall ranking, Chicken grit or granite chips is a popular aggregate in soil mixtures. Its popularity stems from its excellent drainage, its inert structure, and it’s pretty cheap. It’s also one of the heaviest components used. The color depends on the quarry, and for the most part is non-porous and absorbs little water. Most of the water retained is merely from surface tension. With only one gram of water retained and a 94.4% loss, Granite chips ranked last in our list of inorganic materials. Expanded shale is becoming more available as a soil component because of its ability to prevent compaction. It has a semi porous structure and can absorb some moisture.

The large particle size I had available to me drains very well. It has a good color, too. Unlike some other expanded materials this one does not break down easily over time. With only two grams of water and 84.6% loss Expanded shale ranks number nine on the inorganic list. Lava-Rock, which is sometimes known as scoria, is a hard yet porous material with excellent drainage. Its large pores absorb some moisture and can house beneficial bacteria. It also has a pretty color which makes it a good choice for top dressing. Similar to expanded shale and granite, it can last a long time without breaking down.

But 4 grams of water at 76% loss, Lava Rock or Scoria ranks number eight overall in inorganic material. Perlite is a type of volcanic glass that is expanded with high heat. It is common in growing mediums here in the U.S. Its porous structure allows it to float. Much like lava rock and granite, most of the water retained is through surface tension. Also like these other components, It does not break down easily over time One of the problems for bonsai is its stark white color. This usually means it’s only used for training trees and not for formal presentations. At 14 grams of water and 36% loss this product ranks number six on our list. Pumice is a less dense, but more porous variety of Lava Rock.

It, like processed perlite, will float. Like nearly all materials that you use in bonsai, you need to make sure that you sift it and wash it well before you use it. It drains well, and it’s similar to Akadama and its ability to hold and retain good moisture. With 22 grams of water retained and only 29% loss, Pumice holds the number three rank for inorganic material. Sand is one of the most available components around the world. It’s also the heaviest of the components that we tested. Small grains of sand can easily block drainage, so it must be sifted well before use. Sand also drains very well, but the majority of the moisture held within it is from surface tension and not from absorption.

With 12 grams of moisture retained in 67.5% loss, Sand ranks number seven on our list. Turface is a type of Lightweight Expanded Clay Aggregate or L.E.C.A. It is one of the most common Bonsai soil mediums used outside of Japan. It readily absorbs moisture, but like all of these components, it does have some drawbacks that will be discussed later in another video. Turface drains well and has a very good color. Though it’s relatively stable, it can break down over time. Turface held 30 grams of water with 36% loss.

This ranks at number 4 on our Inorganic list. Vermiculite is sold in various forms, including this expanded type. It’s most common use in the gardening world is to break up clay soils. Its use in bonsai depends upon the person. Even though it floats along the surface it does absorb moisture without becoming soggy. There is potential for vermiculite’s small size to clog drainage. Because of its 28 grams of retention with 41.6% loss, Vermiculite comes in at number five. Bees. Again, this is not a full list of components used for bonsai soil mixtures, but what we’re available to me at this time.

I have more tests to show you so stick around. Leave a comment in the section below about what types of tests you’d like to see me perform in the future. If you haven’t already, Follow us on Facebook or Instagram Stay tuned… There’s always more to come! Thanks for watching!! .

Collecting for Bonsai: Dogwood 2016 – Larry’s Place 2

In February, I had the pleasure of scouting trees at my friend Larry’s house. By April the hawthorns were nearly dead Upon further inspection, I found they had a severe infestation of wooly apple aphids, which had destroyed most of their root system. You can see the many galls at the base of this one It’s not wise to remove weak and unhealthy trees, as their survival rate is very low thankfully I had a back-up plan.

On our walk, Larry has spotted a very nice dogwood, one of my favorite trees. With its beautiful bark and spring flowers, I was excited to add one to my collection. Clear the area of debris, then remove the limbs and parts of the trunk you won’t be using, while leaving enough room for potential dieback. Leave any of the fine detail work for later. Next dig a trench around the tree. I give a space of five to six times wider than the base of the tree is in diameter. Don’t hack through the thick roots with the shovel. Leave them for assault fruit Leave them for a saw or pruners. After the first cut, I move outward, and I remove the chunks of earth.

This gap will allow me enough room to cut and pry without disturbing too much of the root ball. I didn’t have any large lateral roots to prune, so I start making undercuts with the shovel. This was a very rare moment when no additional work was needed the entire root ball came right out! Lastly fill in the hole & get your tree home. I start clearing soil away from the base to get an idea of the root system. This dogwood has a cluster of trunks, only one of which i’m going to keep. The visible root structure (or nebari) can affect the direction your tree will be displayed, which also affects which trunk will have the most interest from that point of view take your time with your Take your time with your cuts.

Forcing a cut may cause unwanted damage to other parts of the tree. This trunk was damaged years ago, so I will hollow it out in the future. This last trunk was growing very close to the main one, so I decided to finish off the job with branch cutters. Finally, I whittle down the stubs and make clean cuts. I will smooth the transition more in the future to give character and taper to the tree. A clean cut heals faster than a rough cut. Scrub any moss and debris away with a wire brush. This top section is being removed for scale & taper. A new leader will create the top in the future. Bare rooting is a simple job.

Use a chopstick to clear debris from the roots. This soil is mostly solid clay, which may account for its tight root ball. Trim large roots cleanly with pruners, cutters, or a sharp saw. Smooth any ragged cuts for better healing, and leave as many fine roots as you can. This mica pot has been prepared with wire and screen. Add a fine layer of soil, and arrange the tree. Secure with wires and tighten with pliers. Add coarse well-draining soil, and work in using a chopstick, filling all the crevices. I had one troublesome root that needed to be wired down. Thankfully, mica pots are easily drilled. Finish it all off with the last bit of soil and tamp the sides to settle everything down. The wires underneath the pot can be given a twist to tighten everything securely. Soak your tree thoroughly and let rest in a protected area for a few days. Then, water as needed. The tree only needs to remain damp, not wet.

In four to six weeks, you should see new buds forming. And in two & a half months, you should have good growth like this. If you’ve enjoyed this video, share it with your friends. Like and subscribe, because there’s more to come. Thanks for watching! .

Collecting for Bonsai: Eastern White Pine 2017

We’re going to see a bonsai tree soon! What an adventure, Sorjn! In February, my best friend and I and his son, walked through the neighbor’s field to see if we could find trees to collect for bonsai. We weren’t disappointed. This is a Virginia pine. This is white pine. This is why we dig up trees from a farmer’s field. They just get beat up. Yeah, cool No No. Though there were plenty to look and choose from, only one caught my attention immediately. That is a contender, dude. That is a contender! Look at look at this from this side, man. Wow. That is cool. This is a white pine. That’s quite a white pine though, man. I’ll take that home. I want to mark that one. It’s always good to mark the tree, so you can find them again later.

This also allows you also to bring only the tools you need to do the job. After clearing rocks and debris, I check the roots of the pine. Unlike most of the deciduous trees you’ve seen me dig, pines require many feeder roots in order to survive. If the pine’s tap root goes deep without many surface roots, its chances of survival are very low. Make your first few cuts around the tree. Take your time getting large stones out. This will reduce the risk of injuring yourself or the tree. I periodically wiggle the tree. A strong tap root won’t allow this. If the tree doesn’t budge, leave it in the ground. I’ve checked the roots enough to know that this does not have a large tap root and should come out easily. It’s a windy sunny day, I have a long hike down, and a long drive home. So, I bag up the roots well. Before you leave, make sure you fill the hole back in. It’s just common courtesy. The next step in the process is to clean the roots. This is a field grown pine, which means the soil is poor and full of clay.

A pine that’s growing in a very small crack of rock will have different requirements. Another key difference in collecting pines versus deciduous trees is that pines’ roots should not be washed before they’re put into a bonsai pot. Microorganisms like mycorrhizae are vital for the health and survival of pine trees. You risk washing away these symbiotic components. So, leave the roots dirty. There were a good number of roots for this pine, so, I’ve cut the ones that were aiming downward and cleaned up the cuts from the shovel. I’m using a large plastic tub for this tree. After a few years and the roots have grown, I’ll be able to prune them back for something smaller. The retaining wires holds the tree in place. Just pull and twist Add your coarse soil mix and work into the roots with the chopstick. This soil mixture is 70% inorganic material with 30% pine bark Work the soil in between all the roots and try to fill as many gaps as you can. It can be helpful to start at the base of the tree and work your way outward.

A quick shake can also give a little bit of help. Once the tree has been potted up, soak it in water to ensure that all particles are saturated. Then set it aside out of wind and direct sun for a few weeks. The soil should remain damp but not wet. When the candles extend in springtime, you can begin to fertilize. This white pine has had some incredible growth this spring and summer. But, it’s going to be many years before it will be considered a good bonsai. I think we’re off to a good start. Thanks for watching. .