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How to Winterize Your Bonsai 2016

Winter’s coming! Time to get your bonsai up! Welcome back to Appalachian Bonsai. I’m going to discuss some winterizing techniques for your bonsai trees. The majority of bonsai trees are made from temperate zone specimens. Such as this. This is a shimpaku juniper. Tropical trees can survive indoors, but, all trees thrive outside. That’s what they evolved to do. Trees such as this, and my maples, and other trees you’ve seen this year need to be outside during the winter to survive.

That is what they have evolved to do. My preferred method is to put the trees on the ground and cover them with mulch. But, there are other methods you can use if you have a smaller space such as an apartment with a balcony, or a small townhouse. Living in the city, or even the suburbs, you can create a means to protect your trees during the wintertime. Let’s get started. Many of the items I’m about to discuss can easily be found in your home or at a local hardware store, such as styrofoam insulation material, or even a styrofoam cooler. To create a box, use large pieces of rigid foam like this. Cut to shape, and tape them together. You can even line a Rubbermaid tub with this. Place in your bonsai tree. Then fill it with insulation. A styrofoam cooler is a ready-made solution. Just remove the top – You can discard that. Add holes to the bottom, to ensure good drainage.

Add your beautiful bonsai tree to the cooler Add as many as you feel comfortable. Lastly, add insulation, such as pine needles or mulch. Good to go! If you think styrofoam will be unsightly for your yard, try a couple of hay bales. Put your pots on the ground, or on a piece of plywood, then surround them with hay bales. Pack it full of straw or mulch, and you should be good to go. Take a couple of gourds or pumpkins, if you want, and stick them right on top! This is my wintering bed. You can see it isn’t very pretty, but, it doesn’t have to be. It’s just storing my trees for the wintertime.

What’ve I’ve done is taken plywood, and put it on the ground, then put my pots right on top, and cover them with mulch. The reason for this, is to keep bits of mud and debris out from under the pot. That will clog drainage. This acts as a nice barrier. Another feature is my windscreen. and I have this around the outside area. And what this does, is minimize wind from blowing through, and causing limb dieback. The wind will dehydrate your trees, so protect them as best you can. If you have good draining soil, you shouldn’t have to worry about freeze issues too much, What you do need to worry about is your trees drying out. Just check the moisture levels. You can see this top layer looks dry, but, when you brush it aside, you can see the darker color of damp material underneath. What about placement of your trees? Where in your yard do you put them? Most importantly, if you’ve got space for them, put them there.

There are a few things you can pay attention to that might assist you in your process. I keep looking up because of my roof. The roof here, if snow builds up on top of this, there’s a chance of it sliding down, and damaging my trees. So, I do not put trees underneath the eaves. I do, however, keep them back here.

This is the north side of my house. It’s shaded, and it’s protected from snowfall from this roof. Trees don’t need much light during the winter. Many trees, especially in the northern climates get buried with snow. They don’t see light for many months. It’s not necessary. The snow itself also acts as an insulator. So, if you have them buried in snow during the winter, it can be a very good thing to have. One of the last options I’ll discuss about winterizing your trees will be keeping them in a cold place, such as a basement like this, or a shed, or some room you can keep in the high-30’s to low-40’s (Fahrenheit) It can be a very difficult thing to do. Inside can often be very dry during the wintertime. That can lead to your trees drying out if you don’t pay attention to how much moisture is in the pot.

Another problem, is there is little to no ventilation. The air outside is always moving, even when it’s supposedly still outside, but inside, bad ventilation can lead to mold and mildew problems. You don’t want to have that with your trees. I’ve lost more trees keeping them indoors during the winter, than I have keeping them outside during the winter. It can be a tricky thing, but if you have nothing else, use it as an option. These are not the only means by which you can protect your trees during the winter. These are ones that I can recommend, because I’ve used them. There are all manners & variations to things you can do in order to take care of them. If you have another idea, feel free to put it in the comment section. Give me a good thumbs up! Subscribe, if you haven’t already. I hope this has been helpful. Thanks for watching! Well, I put those in the ground just in time! Whooo!!

Bonsai Sessions: Pruning a Juniper

Is this perfect? No. It’s not. That’s why it’s called practice. Welcome to Appalachian Bonsai. Today, I’m going to be working on this juniper. You’ve seen it a couple of times before in update videos. This is a Pfitzer juniper, which is a hybrid. It started off as landscaping material that you could purchase at a nursery. It has some interesting shapes and features about it that I liked, and I was able to acquire this.

It hasn’t been wired in over a year. It’s about time to have that happen again. I’d like to do that before springtime hits. So, we’re gonna do that today. I have a few issues. My puppy dog, Rocky, has broken off several branches. That is… it’s unfortunate. This one over here has been broken, so I have to be careful when I wire that one.

This one’s completely gone. There are a few others, but we’ll make do with it. Let’s begin. I’m gonna start by pruning. It’s going to be some basic pruning to shorten some of these needles up. This has scale needle foliage, and we’re just going to shorten it, bring it back into shape, and then I will wire it and place the branches. It’s had some strong growth. It needs to be pruned back I’ve got this really nice long leaflet here, if you will, and I’m going to shorten it back and reduce it to a couple of forked branches here. The reason we’re doing this instead of letting it grow long is we need to compact the foliage in. The more compact the foliage is in the older the tree looks.

It’s it’s kind of strange. The more you reduce this foliage towards the trunk, the more you make it more compact, the older the tree looks. Younger trees have a lot of long growth, very leggy growth, but older trees have grown large and therefore the foliage appears more compact. So we need to make this appear more compact too. I just took off that nice fanned section of foliage and we’re left with I believe this little stub here.

I can probably reduce it down a little bit more but I’m going to wait until I get this all pruned up and then we’ll come back and refine. I have two inside of this branch that will allow me to prune this long leggy one back, like that. I have some pieces on the inside here that’s gotten really wild and out of hand mostly juvenile foliage here this may be part of the damage done by that puppy dog. When a juniper is stressed it can produce this juvenile foliage. The stressing comes from many things.

It can come from pruning. It can come from repotting. It can come from poor watering, and it can come from a dog getting into the bed, the winter bed, and disturbing it. I’ve got a lot going on, which you may see. I have buds here and here and here and here, and little branching structures, and this really long section that I don’t need to be long. I can reduce this back, like that. I have this long section there we’re gonna split these off and leave a couple of terminal buds there. Then I have this inner growth here which is good. I’m gonna leave that. There’s a branch kinda coming back toward me that I believe I can wire out and so I’m gonna save it until then. I do have some that’s growing downward that I don’t want. If it’s in a position where I can wire it out and upward that would be good.

That is not the case with this. I don’t want that. Again, I have some really strong growth happening here. I’m happy to see it strong. It’s been in this pot for several years, which means that the root structure is very strong. It’s healthy. I have some poor looking buds below and I have the healthier buds above, so I’m going to keep the healthier buds and remove that unhealthy one. This is really lively. It’s got a good color to it. I’m going to try and prune this in a little bit there to that bud. And now we’ve reduced that branch in. Long leggy structure there Sorry if you’re not able to see that. Let’s move on to this next section I do have two little buds here and there. Let’s clip that one It’s a long and leggy. You see how long and leggy that is. I really should have pruned this sooner, but did not. I didn’t do the pinching like I should. We’re just gonna try to do our best to correct that now.

This is really really long. Pruning it back some, and hopefully it’ll produce some buds further into the branch. Some say you should pinch buds. Others say you should prune buds. I say do whatever you need to, but I think pruning leaves a nice clean cut. You’re not gonna bruise the the foliage like you will if you pinch. If you pinch, you’re squeezing, you’re just crushing. Crushing is not good for your plant. Imagine crushing leaves on a deciduous tree. You might be able to pinch with your fingernails, but use the scissors. They’re sharp. I’ve got this branch coming up. I kind of like it, because there’s not much going on here to fill in this spot. Whenever I wire this down I kind of like this coming up it’ll fill in a nice padded area there. It doesn’t all need to be flayed out where I can look directly on top of it, especially if I’ve got nothing happening in that area.

I can thank a dog for that. This branch is kind of growing a little bit on the underside. I can move it and have it fan this way, which I will. I’m going to prune it back. Same with this long branch here. I’ll be able to lay it open and display that. I could probably bring it in really really close but bring it into there for now. Yeah. Just bring that in much closer. There we go. Reduce these down. Bring this in a little bit closer, like that. Splay that out. This foliage here could be reduced way down. This branch is super heavy. It’s had a lot of wiring done to it. I’m already seeing an area that’s needing some work. This is kind of a crotch area, right there. This has a lot of branches moving in and out I’ve been working on that for a while but it’s also got a lot of buds that have filled in the area.

In the crotches, and they need to be removed and reduced. What else have got? Some ungainly growth. As I said, I should have pruned this out this last year. I did not take the time to do that. Somebody said that I won’t be able to get this Pfitzer to back bud. They were wrong. I’ve been working on this for years. It back buds just fine. I have branches that are kind of growing back out this way. It’s almost as if they’re crossing each other. I don’t want that. I’m gonna be removing them. I’ll wire them out… They’re kind of ungainly. So they’re gone. There’s too much going on in this little area here. I have a nice branch that’s coming out this way and then I have this little guy which I was promoting at one point, but I have another stronger one that’s healthier on the back side.

So, now I’m getting it to fill in this area which I don’t want at this moment. I’m just gonna remove that. so now it’s a little more open and cleaned up. I have this one right there I can promote if I’d like. It’s got this juvenile foliage though. I don’t like that. The other end I do have this one underneath and I’ll leave that alone for now. This guy here… Yeah, just gonna remove the strength of that one. Don’t be afraid of this, folks. This is a necessary part of your bonsai Yeah, you might lose some branches that you didn’t expect to do, but how are you ever gonna learn unless you do it? Is this perfect? No. It’s not. That’s why it’s called practice. Watch your fingers! Okay, it’s better. Let’s work our way up. This right here is, again, the section where the dog has ripped off sections of my tree.

It is unfortunate. It does happen. Accidents happen, folks. So I have a branch that’s starting to grow right there that I can promote. Maybe it can come across this way so I’m going to leave this to grow long. It’s not going to be really good and pretty for now, but you know, it’s at least gonna grow in time. That’s what I want. You might see some crotch areas in here that needs some work. I’ll clean that little section out. I was hoping this would be a little bit more dense and refined, but it’s not. My fault. There we go. I’m taking really strong shoots out of here & bringing it to a more compact form. Again, don’t be afraid to cut it back. Your tree will only look better with time. If you hear the squeaking of my tool, it does need a little oil. But, you know… whatev. Bonsai pruning shears are some of my favorites. These are made in Japan. I do have these little Fiskars that were given to me.

These work pretty well, too. I have used them quite a bit. They work great, so whichever one you feel like getting, go for it. Sometimes it’s hard to tell what I was doing before . I had this branch over this branch coming across. I don’t like the direction that’s working at the moment, because it’s shading this lower branch. I have branches coming up from up here that are growing strong and then I have this nice little branch down here that I don’t want to lose because it’s not getting enough sunlight, so I’ve pruned that out and now I’m deciding what to do with these. I have branches above it here and then branches over there. Am I gonna lose anything by removing them? No. I can remove, I can lose this branch. It was an optional. I have one, two, three. I’m probably gonna just give it a little crunch and then maybe peel that back. This is kind of nice. Let’s see what we get. What I’m gonna try to do is ‘collar’ this.

Maybe you’ll be able to see. By ‘collaring’ I am gonna remove some material here just by rotating my scissors around that point. All I’m doing is trying to break the cambium – not cut through the branch. The cambium is just a layer of the bark. I’m gonna cut it there. That’s gonna give me a clean cut. Then I’m gonna take a pair of pliers, I don’t have them… do i? I do! I’ve got a pair of needle nose here. These are old needle nose. These do need oil. I’m going to peel this foliage back. Start by crushing. You know, just taking the pliers and pinch pinch pinching. Remember I was talking about pinching, how it crushes the foliage? It also crushes the bark, but in this case I want it to crush the bark. Then peel that bark away. I can peel it with my fingers after it’s crushed. There we go. Then, where I made the nice cut above it’s clean. There. Now we’ve got this exposed bit of branch there, and I can carve it up.

I can cut it I’m gonna cut it for now. Then I’ll carve that out. I don’t have my razor blade on me. I’ll try with this. Yeah, a little bit sharper point. It can be reduced a little bit more. That’ll be just fine. It’s gotten really strong and long here but it’s not going anywhere except in the way of other things. So, I’m gonna prune that way way back. In fact, I’ve got a better branch underneath that I can wire that way if I choose to have more growth in there. Prune it back even further if I want. A branch growing into itself. I don’t like that. And this one can be reduced there.

I have buds that have just blown up right here. What do I do with them? Hmm… I think we’ll play with that in just a minute and reduce it as we need to. There’s still going to be some more pruning while we’re wiring it, but let’s go and get to wiring it next. I love you! Like, Share, & Subscribe! Follow on Instagram & Facebook! .

Bonsai Soil Tests: Part 1: Water Retention

Welcome to Appalachian Bonsai. This video is one of a series to discuss soil components and some of their properties as they pertain to bonsai. These components are what we’re available to me at this particular time. What’s available to you may vary by region or by country. When it comes to bonsai soil no two person’s soil mixtures are alike. Each soil mixture depends upon the species, the climate, and the person who’s using them. I hope that just seeing these components in testing will allow you to make choices for your own.

Thanks for watching. Today, we’re going to look at water retention and a little bit on drainage. All plants need water so let’s see how much water these components hold. Both organic and inorganic materials were considered. Just because something holds moisture doesn’t make it good. Conversely, just because it might not absorb moisture doesn’t make it bad. I began by measuring equal volumes of each component and measured their dry weight for reference. Next, I added distilled water to each type and let it soak for one hour. This should allow plenty of time for each type of soil to fully saturate.

After an hour, the components are removed from the water and allowed to drain. Each is weighed out over time to calculate retention. Let’s see the differences. We’ll begin with organic materials. Coconut coir is commonly used in flower baskets and hydroponics. It is sold in brick form and soaks up water like a sponge. It fills the entire cup. That’s a lot of water! But, all available space is filled, which isn’t necessarily good for bonsai. We’ll will look more on that type of drainage in another video. After draining for an hour and 45 minutes, we weighed each sample. We weighed the samples again 3.5 hours later.

By comparing the different weights, we are able to determine the amount of water retained, and a basic percentage of loss. At 129 grams of water retained, plus minimal loss, Coconut Coir ranks number one in organic material water retention. This is mushroom compost I bought in bags at my local nursery. It is damp at purchase time, so I oven-dried it before I used it. Small twigs and sand may be present, and the content will vary depending on where you purchase.

It drains well and has a slight alkalinity. I’ll do a video on pH at a later date. At 26 grams of water retained and 31.5% lost, Compost comes in at number three with water retention for organic material. Sphagnum moss is found in cooler damper regions of the world and is known to hold moisture very well. However, in the United States commercially available peat moss comes in a fine kiln dry powder.

Unlike fresh sphagnum. In this processed form it does not whet easily, much like baking flour. More information will be available in a future video. You can see it has absorbed very little water, and is actually floating on top. If powdered peat moss in a soil mix is allowed to dry out potential dead zones may occur. If it is saturated, powdered peat moss will hold plenty of moisture, but for this test, it did not perform well. After draining for five and a quarter hour, peat moss only held six grams of water with 40% loss. It ranks number four on the organic list. Pine bark and fir bark are fan favorites in the bonsai world. I have pine bark available in my region.

Here, pine bark chips can be sold as soil conditioner. I sift it to a proper size and put the rest in the garden. Sifted bark drains well and holds good moisture. Beneficial microorganisms like bacteria can thrive in these porous structures. As a quick note, pine bark is on the acidic side. At retaining 22 grams of water at a 14.8% loss, pine bark comes in at number two in organic water retention. Let’s look at the Inorganic materials and aggregates. Akadama is the classic gold standard of Japanese bonsai mixtures. Here in most of the U.S., it is expensive and not readily available. It is often purchased online or at dedicated bonsai nurseries. Its large particle size drains well and its porosity absorbs and retains moisture. Because of the expense and its scarcity outside of Japan, people around the world look for alternatives to akadama. With water retention of 22 grams at a 26.6% loss, Akadama ranks number two overall in inorganic material.

Diatomaceous Earth, or diatomite, is a lightweight fossilized clay that is used as an absorbent in kitty litter and oil dry. This product needs to be sifted well before use. It also compacts and breaks down over time. We will look at that in another video. Like Akadama, it absorbs and retains moisture very well, and in fact, retains more water than akadama. At 37 grams of water retained with 30% loss, Diatomaceous Earth comes in at number one overall ranking, Chicken grit or granite chips is a popular aggregate in soil mixtures. Its popularity stems from its excellent drainage, its inert structure, and it’s pretty cheap. It’s also one of the heaviest components used. The color depends on the quarry, and for the most part is non-porous and absorbs little water. Most of the water retained is merely from surface tension. With only one gram of water retained and a 94.4% loss, Granite chips ranked last in our list of inorganic materials. Expanded shale is becoming more available as a soil component because of its ability to prevent compaction. It has a semi porous structure and can absorb some moisture.

The large particle size I had available to me drains very well. It has a good color, too. Unlike some other expanded materials this one does not break down easily over time. With only two grams of water and 84.6% loss Expanded shale ranks number nine on the inorganic list. Lava-Rock, which is sometimes known as scoria, is a hard yet porous material with excellent drainage. Its large pores absorb some moisture and can house beneficial bacteria. It also has a pretty color which makes it a good choice for top dressing. Similar to expanded shale and granite, it can last a long time without breaking down.

But 4 grams of water at 76% loss, Lava Rock or Scoria ranks number eight overall in inorganic material. Perlite is a type of volcanic glass that is expanded with high heat. It is common in growing mediums here in the U.S. Its porous structure allows it to float. Much like lava rock and granite, most of the water retained is through surface tension. Also like these other components, It does not break down easily over time One of the problems for bonsai is its stark white color. This usually means it’s only used for training trees and not for formal presentations. At 14 grams of water and 36% loss this product ranks number six on our list. Pumice is a less dense, but more porous variety of Lava Rock.

It, like processed perlite, will float. Like nearly all materials that you use in bonsai, you need to make sure that you sift it and wash it well before you use it. It drains well, and it’s similar to Akadama and its ability to hold and retain good moisture. With 22 grams of water retained and only 29% loss, Pumice holds the number three rank for inorganic material. Sand is one of the most available components around the world. It’s also the heaviest of the components that we tested. Small grains of sand can easily block drainage, so it must be sifted well before use. Sand also drains very well, but the majority of the moisture held within it is from surface tension and not from absorption.

With 12 grams of moisture retained in 67.5% loss, Sand ranks number seven on our list. Turface is a type of Lightweight Expanded Clay Aggregate or L.E.C.A. It is one of the most common Bonsai soil mediums used outside of Japan. It readily absorbs moisture, but like all of these components, it does have some drawbacks that will be discussed later in another video. Turface drains well and has a very good color. Though it’s relatively stable, it can break down over time. Turface held 30 grams of water with 36% loss.

This ranks at number 4 on our Inorganic list. Vermiculite is sold in various forms, including this expanded type. It’s most common use in the gardening world is to break up clay soils. Its use in bonsai depends upon the person. Even though it floats along the surface it does absorb moisture without becoming soggy. There is potential for vermiculite’s small size to clog drainage. Because of its 28 grams of retention with 41.6% loss, Vermiculite comes in at number five. Bees. Again, this is not a full list of components used for bonsai soil mixtures, but what we’re available to me at this time.

I have more tests to show you so stick around. Leave a comment in the section below about what types of tests you’d like to see me perform in the future. If you haven’t already, Follow us on Facebook or Instagram Stay tuned… There’s always more to come! Thanks for watching!! .

Collecting for Bonsai: Dogwood 2016 – Larry’s Place 2

In February, I had the pleasure of scouting trees at my friend Larry’s house. By April the hawthorns were nearly dead Upon further inspection, I found they had a severe infestation of wooly apple aphids, which had destroyed most of their root system. You can see the many galls at the base of this one It’s not wise to remove weak and unhealthy trees, as their survival rate is very low thankfully I had a back-up plan.

On our walk, Larry has spotted a very nice dogwood, one of my favorite trees. With its beautiful bark and spring flowers, I was excited to add one to my collection. Clear the area of debris, then remove the limbs and parts of the trunk you won’t be using, while leaving enough room for potential dieback. Leave any of the fine detail work for later. Next dig a trench around the tree. I give a space of five to six times wider than the base of the tree is in diameter. Don’t hack through the thick roots with the shovel. Leave them for assault fruit Leave them for a saw or pruners. After the first cut, I move outward, and I remove the chunks of earth.

This gap will allow me enough room to cut and pry without disturbing too much of the root ball. I didn’t have any large lateral roots to prune, so I start making undercuts with the shovel. This was a very rare moment when no additional work was needed the entire root ball came right out! Lastly fill in the hole & get your tree home. I start clearing soil away from the base to get an idea of the root system. This dogwood has a cluster of trunks, only one of which i’m going to keep. The visible root structure (or nebari) can affect the direction your tree will be displayed, which also affects which trunk will have the most interest from that point of view take your time with your Take your time with your cuts.

Forcing a cut may cause unwanted damage to other parts of the tree. This trunk was damaged years ago, so I will hollow it out in the future. This last trunk was growing very close to the main one, so I decided to finish off the job with branch cutters. Finally, I whittle down the stubs and make clean cuts. I will smooth the transition more in the future to give character and taper to the tree. A clean cut heals faster than a rough cut. Scrub any moss and debris away with a wire brush. This top section is being removed for scale & taper. A new leader will create the top in the future. Bare rooting is a simple job.

Use a chopstick to clear debris from the roots. This soil is mostly solid clay, which may account for its tight root ball. Trim large roots cleanly with pruners, cutters, or a sharp saw. Smooth any ragged cuts for better healing, and leave as many fine roots as you can. This mica pot has been prepared with wire and screen. Add a fine layer of soil, and arrange the tree. Secure with wires and tighten with pliers. Add coarse well-draining soil, and work in using a chopstick, filling all the crevices. I had one troublesome root that needed to be wired down. Thankfully, mica pots are easily drilled. Finish it all off with the last bit of soil and tamp the sides to settle everything down. The wires underneath the pot can be given a twist to tighten everything securely. Soak your tree thoroughly and let rest in a protected area for a few days. Then, water as needed. The tree only needs to remain damp, not wet.

In four to six weeks, you should see new buds forming. And in two & a half months, you should have good growth like this. If you’ve enjoyed this video, share it with your friends. Like and subscribe, because there’s more to come. Thanks for watching! .

Collecting for Bonsai: Eastern White Pine 2017

We’re going to see a bonsai tree soon! What an adventure, Sorjn! In February, my best friend and I and his son, walked through the neighbor’s field to see if we could find trees to collect for bonsai. We weren’t disappointed. This is a Virginia pine. This is white pine. This is why we dig up trees from a farmer’s field. They just get beat up. Yeah, cool No No. Though there were plenty to look and choose from, only one caught my attention immediately. That is a contender, dude. That is a contender! Look at look at this from this side, man. Wow. That is cool. This is a white pine. That’s quite a white pine though, man. I’ll take that home. I want to mark that one. It’s always good to mark the tree, so you can find them again later.

This also allows you also to bring only the tools you need to do the job. After clearing rocks and debris, I check the roots of the pine. Unlike most of the deciduous trees you’ve seen me dig, pines require many feeder roots in order to survive. If the pine’s tap root goes deep without many surface roots, its chances of survival are very low. Make your first few cuts around the tree. Take your time getting large stones out. This will reduce the risk of injuring yourself or the tree. I periodically wiggle the tree. A strong tap root won’t allow this. If the tree doesn’t budge, leave it in the ground. I’ve checked the roots enough to know that this does not have a large tap root and should come out easily. It’s a windy sunny day, I have a long hike down, and a long drive home. So, I bag up the roots well. Before you leave, make sure you fill the hole back in. It’s just common courtesy. The next step in the process is to clean the roots. This is a field grown pine, which means the soil is poor and full of clay.

A pine that’s growing in a very small crack of rock will have different requirements. Another key difference in collecting pines versus deciduous trees is that pines’ roots should not be washed before they’re put into a bonsai pot. Microorganisms like mycorrhizae are vital for the health and survival of pine trees. You risk washing away these symbiotic components. So, leave the roots dirty. There were a good number of roots for this pine, so, I’ve cut the ones that were aiming downward and cleaned up the cuts from the shovel. I’m using a large plastic tub for this tree. After a few years and the roots have grown, I’ll be able to prune them back for something smaller. The retaining wires holds the tree in place. Just pull and twist Add your coarse soil mix and work into the roots with the chopstick. This soil mixture is 70% inorganic material with 30% pine bark Work the soil in between all the roots and try to fill as many gaps as you can. It can be helpful to start at the base of the tree and work your way outward.

A quick shake can also give a little bit of help. Once the tree has been potted up, soak it in water to ensure that all particles are saturated. Then set it aside out of wind and direct sun for a few weeks. The soil should remain damp but not wet. When the candles extend in springtime, you can begin to fertilize. This white pine has had some incredible growth this spring and summer. But, it’s going to be many years before it will be considered a good bonsai. I think we’re off to a good start. Thanks for watching. .